Limit number/density of alcohol establishments
Under this strategy, local or state governments enact regulations that reduce the number of alcohol establishments or limit the number that may be established in a community or area, often through licensing or zoning laws.
Effectiveness: = Moderate effectiveness
Cost: $$ = Mid-range
Barriers: ### = Higher
Research Amount: **** = 5 or more longitudinal studies
Public Health Reach: Broad
Staffing Expertise Needed: Policy advocate
Target Population: All students
Research Population: College, general
Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.
Campbell CA, Hahn RA, Elder R, Brewer R, Chattopadhyay S, Fielding P, et al. The effectiveness of limiting alcohol outlet density as a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 37(6):556–69, 2009.
- Recent studies:
Mair C, Gruenewald PJ, Ponicki WR, & Remer L. Varying impacts of alcohol outlet densities on violent assaults: Explaining differences across neighborhoods. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 74(1):50–8, 2013.
- Pridemore WA & Grubesic TH. Alcohol outlets and community levels of interpersonal violence: spatial density, outlet type, and seriousness of assault. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 50(1):132–59, 2013.
- Scribner RA, Mason KE, Simonsen NR, Theall K, Chotalia J, Johnson S, et al. An ecological analysis of alcohol-outlet density and campus-reported violence at 32 US colleges. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71(2):184–91, 2010.
References from 2019 update
- Ahern, J.; Margerison-Zilko, C.; Hubbard, A.; and Galea, S. Alcohol outlets and binge drinking in urban neighborhoods: The implications of nonlinearity for intervention and policy. American Journal of Public Health 103(4):E81–E87, 2013.
- Erickson, D.J.; Carlin, B.P.; Lenk, K.M.; et al. Do neighborhood attributes moderate the relationship between alcohol establishment density and crime? Prevention Science 16(2):254–264, 2015.
- Foster, S.; Trapp, G.; Hooper, P.; et al. Liquor landscapes: Does access to alcohol outlets influence alcohol consumption in young adults? Health and Place 45:17–23, 2017.
- Grubesic, T.H.; Pridemore, W.A.; Williams, D.A.; and Philip-Tabb, L. Alcohol outlet density and violence: The role of risky retailers and alcohol-related expenditures. Alcohol and Alcoholism 48(5):613–619, 2013.
- Gruenewald, P.J.; Remer, L.G.; and LaScala, E.A. Testing a social ecological model of alcohol use: The California 50-city study. Addiction 109(5):736–745, 2014.
- Halonen, J.I.; Kivimaki, M.; Virtanen, M.; et al. Living in proximity of a bar and risky alcohol behaviours: A longitudinal study. Addiction 108(2):320–328, 2013.
- Han, D.; Shipp, E.M.; and Gorman, D.M. Evaluating the effects of a large increase in off-sale alcohol outlets on motor vehicle crashes: A time-series analysis. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion 22(4):320–327, 2015.
- Pridemore, W.A.; and Grubesic, T.H. A spatial analysis of the moderating effects of land use on the association between alcohol outlet density and violence in urban areas. Drug and Alcohol Review 31(4):385–393, 2012.
- Pridemore, W.A.; and Grubesic, T.H. Community organization moderates the effect of alcohol outlet density on violence. British Journal of Sociology 63(4):680–703, 2012.
- Quick, M.; Law, J.; and Luan, H. The influence of on-premise and off-premise alcohol outlets on reported violent crime in the region of Waterloo, Ontario: Applying Bayesian spatial modeling to inform land use planning and policy. Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy 10(3):435–454, 2017.
- Rowland, B.; Toumbourou, J.W.; and Livingston, M. The association of alcohol outlet density with illegal underage adolescent purchasing of alcohol. Journal of Adolescent Health 56(2):146–152, 2015.
- Snowden, A.J.; and Pridemore, W.A. Alcohol and violence in a nonmetropolitan college town: Alcohol outlet density, outlet type, and assault. Journal of Drug Issues 43(3):357–373, 2013.
- Snowden, A.J.; and Pridemore, W.A. Off-premise alcohol outlet characteristics and violence. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 40(4):327–335, 2014.
- Zhang, X.; Hatcher, B.; Clarkson, L.; et al. Changes in density of on-premises alcohol outlets and impact on violent crime, Atlanta, Georgia, 1997–2007. Preventing Chronic Disease 12:E84, 2015.
- Ahern, J.; Balzer, L.; and Galea, S. The roles of outlet density and norms in alcohol use disorder. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 151:144–150, 2015.
- Ayuka, F.; Barnett, R.; and Pearce, J. Neighbourhood availability of alcohol outlets and hazardous alcohol consumption in New Zealand. Health and Place 29:186–199, 2014.
- Azar, D.; White, V.; Coomber, K.; et al. The association between alcohol outlet density and alcohol use among urban and regional Australian adolescents. Addiction 111(1):65–72, 2016.
- Badland, H.; Mavoa, S.; Livingston, M.; et al. Testing spatial measures of alcohol outlet density with self-rated health in the Australian context: Implications for policy and practice. Drug and Alcohol Review 35(3):298–306, 2016.
- Cameron, M.P.; Cochrane, W.; Gordon, C.; and Livingston, M. Alcohol outlet density and violence: A geographically weighted regression approach. Drug and Alcohol Review 35(3):280–288, 2016.
- Cederbaum, J.A.; Petering, R.; Hutchinson, M.K.; et al. Alcohol outlet density and related use in an urban black population in Philadelphia public housing communities. Health and Place 31:31–38, 2015.
- Cunradi, C.B.; Mair, C.; Ponicki, W.; and Remer, L. Alcohol outlet density and intimate partner violence-related emergency department visits. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 36(5):847–853, 2012.
- Day, P.; Breetzke, G.; Kingham, S.; and Campbell, M. Close proximity to alcohol outlets is associated with increased serious violent crime in New Zealand. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 36(1):48–54, 2012.
- Dukes, J.W.; Dewland, T.A.; Vittinghoff, E.; et al. Access to alcohol and heart disease among patients in hospital: Observational cohort study using differences in alcohol sales laws. British Medical Journal 353:i2714, 2016.
- Freisthler, B.; Holmes, M.R.; and Wolf, J.P. The dark side of social support: Understanding the role of social support, drinking behaviors and alcohol outlets for child physical abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect 38(6):1106–1119, 2014.
- Freisthler, B.; Johnson-Motoyama, M.; and Kepple, N.J. Inadequate child supervision: The role of alcohol outlet density, parent drinking behaviors, and social support. Children and Youth Services Review 43:75–84, 2014.
- Giesbrecht, N.; Huguet, N.; Ogden, L.; et al. Acute alcohol use among suicide decedents in 14 U.S. states: Impacts of off-premise and on-premise alcohol outlet density. Addiction 110(2):300–307, 2015.
- Goldstick, J.E.; Brenner, A.B.; Lipton, R.I.; et al. A spatial analysis of heterogeneity in the link between alcohol outlets and assault victimization: Differences across victim subpopulations. Violence and Victims 30(4):649–662, 2015.
- Gorman, D.M.; Ponicki, W.R.; Zheng, Q.; et al. Violent crime redistribution in a city following a substantial increase in the number of off-sale alcohol outlets: A Bayesian analysis. Drug and Alcohol Review 37(3):348–355, 2018.
- Halonen, J.I.; Kivimaki, M.; Pentti, J.; et al. Association of the availability of beer, wine, and liquor outlets with beverage-specific alcohol consumption: A cohort study. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 38(4):1086–1093, 2014.
- Halonen, J.I.; Kivimaki, M.; Virtanen, M.; et al. Proximity of off-premise alcohol outlets and heavy alcohol consumption: A cohort study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 132(1–2):295–300, 2013.
- Han, D.; and Gorman, D.M. Exploring spatial associations between on-sale alcohol availability, neighborhood population characteristics, and violent crime in a geographically isolated city. Journal of Addiction 2013:6, 2013.
- Hobday, M.; Chikritzhs, T.; Liang, W.B.; and Meuleners, L. The effect of alcohol outlets, sales and trading hours on alcohol-related injuries presenting at emergency departments in Perth, Australia, from 2002 to 2010. Addiction 110(12):1901–1909, 2015.
- Iritani, B.J.; Waller, M.W.; Halpern, C.T.; et al. Alcohol outlet density and young women's perpetration of violence toward male intimate partners. Journal of Family Violence 28(5):459–470, 2013.
- Jennings, J.M.; Milam, A.J.; Greiner, A.; et al. Neighborhood alcohol outlets and the association with violent crime in one mid-Atlantic city: The implications for zoning policy. Journal of Urban Health 91(1):62–71, 2014.
- Kearns, M.C.; Reidy, D.E.; and Valle, L.A. The role of alcohol policies in preventing intimate partner violence: A review of the literature. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 76(1):21–30, 2015.
- Lipton, R.; Yang, X.W.; Braga, A.A.; et al. The geography of violence, alcohol outlets, and drug arrests in Boston. American Journal of Public Health 103(4):657–664, 2013.
- Maimon, D.; and Browning, C.R. Underage drinking, alcohol sales and collective efficacy: Informal control and opportunity in the study of alcohol use. Social Science Research 41(4):977–990, 2012.
- Matheson, F.I.; Creatore, M.I.; Gozdyra, P.; et al. A population-based study of premature mortality in relation to neighbourhood density of alcohol sales and cheque cashing outlets in Toronto, Canada. British Medical Journal Open 4(12):e006032, 2014.
- McKinney, C.M.; Chartier, K.G.; Caetano, R.; and Harris, T.R. Alcohol availability and neighborhood poverty and their relationship to binge drinking and related problems among drinkers in committed relationships. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 27(13):2703–2727, 2012.
- Morrison, C.; Smith, K; Gruenewald, P.J.; et al. Relating off-premises alcohol outlet density to intentional and unintentional injuries. Addiction 111(1):56–64, 2016.
- Morton, C.M. The moderating effect of substance abuse service accessibility on the relationship between child maltreatment and neighborhood alcohol availability. Children and Youth Services Review 35(12):1933–1940, 2013.
- Morton, C.M.; Simmel, C.; and Peterson, N.A. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: Moderating effects of access to substance abuse services. Child Abuse and Neglect 38(5):952–961, 2014.
- Paschall, M.J.; Grube, J.W.; Thomas, S.; et al. Relationships between local enforcement, alcohol availability, drinking norms, and adolescent alcohol use in 50 California cities. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 73(4):657–665, 2012.
- Paschall, M.J.; Lipperman-Kreda, S.; and Grube, J.W. Effects of the local alcohol environment on adolescents' drinking behaviors and beliefs. Addiction 109(3):407–416, 2014.
- Pearson, A.L.; Bowie, C.; and Thornton, L.E. Is access to alcohol associated with alcohol/substance abuse among people diagnosed with anxiety/mood disorder? Public Health 128(11):968–976, 2014.
- Pereira, G.; Wood, L.; Foster, S.; and Haggar, F. Access to alcohol outlets, alcohol consumption and mental health. PLoS ONE 8(1):e53461, 2013.
- Ray, J.G.; Turner, L.; Gozdyra, P.; et al. On-premise alcohol establishments and ambulance calls for trauma, assault, and intoxication. Medicine 95(19):e3669, 2016.
- Richardson, E.A.; Hill, S.E.; Mitchell, R.; et al. Is local alcohol outlet density related to alcohol-related morbidity and mortality in Scottish cities? Health and Place 33:172–180, 2015.
- Roman, C.G.; and Reid, S.E. Assessing the relationship between alcohol outlets and domestic violence: Routine activities and the neighborhood environment. Violence and Victims 27(5):811–828, 2012.
- Rowland, B.; Toumbourou, J.W.; Satyen, L.; et al. Associations between alcohol outlet densities and adolescent alcohol consumption: A study in Australian students. Addictive Behaviors 39(1):282–288, 2014.
- Rowland, B.; Toumbourou, J.W.; Satyen, L.; et al. The relationship between the density of alcohol outlets and parental supply of alcohol to adolescents. Addictive Behaviors 39(12):1898–1903, 2014.
- Scherer, M.; Romano, E.; Caldwell, S.; and Taylor, E. The impact of retail beverage service training and social host laws on adolescents' DUI rates in San Diego County, California. Traffic Injury Prevention 19(2):111–117, 2018.
- Schofield, T.P.; and Denson, T.F. Temporal alcohol availability predicts first-time drunk driving, but not repeat offending. PLoS ONE 8(8):e71169, 2013.
- Shih, R.A.; Mullins, L.; Ewing, B.A.; et al. Associations between neighborhood alcohol availability and young adolescent alcohol use. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 29(4):950–959, 2015.
- Shimotsu, S.T.; Jones-Webb, R.J.; MacLehose, R.F.; et al. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics, the retail environment, and alcohol consumption: A multilevel analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 132(3):449–456, 2013.
- Snowden, A.J.; and Freiburger, T.L. Alcohol outlets, social disorganization, and robberies: Accounting for neighborhood characteristics and alcohol outlet types. Social Science Research 51:145–162, 2015.
- Spoerri, A.; Zwahlen, M.; Panczak, R.; et al. Alcohol-selling outlets and mortality in Switzerland— the Swiss National Cohort. Addiction 108(9):1603–1611, 2013.
- Stockwell, T.; Zhao, J.H.; Martin, G.; et al. Minimum alcohol prices and outlet densities in British Columbia, Canada: Estimated impacts on alcohol-attributable hospital admissions. American Journal of Public Health 103(11):2014–2020, 2013.
- Stockwell, T.; Zhao, J.H.; Marzell, M.; et al. Relationships between minimum alcohol pricing and crime during the partial privatization of a Canadian government alcohol monopoly. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 76(4):628–634, 2015.
- Toomey, T.L.; Erickson, D.J.; Carlin, B.P.; et al. Is the density of alcohol establishments related to nonviolent crime? Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 73(1):21–25, 2012.
- Waller, M.W.; Iritani, B.J.; Christ, S.L.; et al. Relationships among alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence victimization among young women in the United States. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 27(10):2062–2086, 2012.
- Waller, M.W.; Iritani, B.J.; Flewelling, R.L.; et al. Violence victimization of young men in heterosexual relationships: Does alcohol outlet density influence outcomes? Violence and Victims 27(4):527–547, 2012.
- Wilkinson, C.; and Livingston, M. Distances to on- and off-premise alcohol outlets and experiences of alcohol-related amenity problems. Drug and Alcohol Review 31(4):394–401, 2012.
- Young, R.; Macdonald, L.; and Ellaway, A. Associations between proximity and density of local alcohol outlets and alcohol use among Scottish adolescents. Health and Place 19:124–130, 2013.
- Zhao, J.H.; Stockwell, T.; Martin, G.; et al. The relationship between minimum alcohol prices, outlet densities and alcohol-attributable deaths in British Columbia, 2002–2009. Addiction 108(6):1059–1069, 2013.
For more information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.