Restrict happy hours/price promotions
Under this strategy, a campus or local or state government prohibits or restricts drink specials, such as the sale of two alcoholic beverages for the price of one, that encourage customers to drink more than they might otherwise.
Effectiveness: = Higher effectiveness
Cost: $ = Lower
Barriers: ### = Higher
Research Amount: *** = 5 or more cross-sectional studies or 1 to 4 longitudinal studies
Public Health Reach: Broad
Staffing Expertise Needed: Policy advocate
Target Population: All students
Research Population: College, general
Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.
- Babor TF, Mendelson JH, Greenberg I, & Kuehnle J. Experimental analysis of the “happy hour”: Effects of purchase price on alcohol consumption. Psychopharmacology, 58:35–41, 1978.
- Babor TF, Mendelson JH, Uhly B, & Souza E. Drinking patterns in experimental and barroom settings. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 41(7):635–51, 1980.
- Christie J, Fisher D, Kozup JC, Smith S, Burton S, & Creyer EH. The effects of bar-sponsored alcohol beverage promotions across binge and nonbinge drinkers. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 20(2):240–53, 2001.
- Kuo MC, Wechsler H, Greenberg P, & Lee H. The marketing of alcohol to college students: The role of low prices and special promotions. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 25(3):204–11, 2003.
- Nelson TF, Naimi TS, Brewer RD, & Wechsler H. The state sets the rate: The relationship among state-specific college binge drinking, state binge drinking rates, and selected state alcohol control policies. American Journal of Public Health, 95(3):441–46, 2005.
- Smart RG & Adlaf EM. Banning happy hours: The impact on drinking and impaired-driving charges in Ontario, Canada. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 47(3):256–58, 1986.
- Thombs DL, O'Mara R, Dodd VJ, Hou W, Merves ML, Weiler RM, et al. A field study of bar-sponsored drink specials and their associations with patron intoxication. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70(2):206–14, 2009.
- Van Hoof J, Van Noordenburg M, & De Jong M. Happy hours and other alcohol discounts in cafes: Prevalence and effects on underage adolescents. Journal of Public Health Policy, 29(3):340–52, 2008.
- Williams J, Chaloupka FJ, Wechsler H. Are there differential effects of price and policy on college students’ drinking intensity? Contemporary Economic Policy, 23(1):78–90, 2005.
- Williams J, Pacula R, Chaloupka F, & Wechsler H. Alcohol and marijuana use among college students: Economic complements or substitutes? Health Economics, 13(9):825–43, 2004.
References from 2019 update
- Baldwin, J.M.; Stogner, J.M.; and Miller, B.L. It's five o'clock somewhere: An examination of the association between happy hour drinking and negative consequences. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 9:17, 2014.
- Kingsland, M.; Wolfenden, L.; Rowland, B.C.; et al. Alcohol consumption and sport: A cross-sectional study of alcohol management practices associated with at-risk alcohol consumption at community football clubs. BMC Public Health 13:762, 2013.
- McClatchley, K.; Shorter, G.W.; and Chalmers, J. Deconstructing alcohol use on a night out in England: Promotions, preloading and consumption. Drug and Alcohol Review 33(4):367–375, 2014.
- Paek, H.J.; and Hove, T. Determinants of underage college student drinking: Implications for four major alcohol reduction strategies. Journal of Health Communication 17(6):659–676, 2012.
For more information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.