Retain or enact restrictions on hours of alcohol sales
Under this strategy, campuses or local and state governments retain or enact policies limiting the hours during which alcohol may be sold legally.
Effectiveness: = Moderate effectiveness
Cost: $ = Lower
Barriers: ## = Moderate
Research Amount: **** = 5 or more longitudinal studies
Public Health Reach: Broad
Staffing Expertise Needed: Policy advocate
Target Population: All students
Research Population: General
Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.
Hahn RA, Kuzara JL, Elder R, Brewer R, Chattopadhyay S, Fielding J, et al. Effectiveness of policies restricting hours of alcohol sales in preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 39(6):590–604, 2010.
- Popova S, Giesbrecht N, Bekmuradov D, & Patra J. Hours and days of sale and density of alcohol outlets: Impacts on alcohol consumption and damage: A systematic review. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 44(5):500–16, 2009.
- Recent studies:
Rossow I & Norstrom T. The impact of small changes in bar closing hours on violence. The Norwegian experience from 18 cities. Addiction, 107(3):530–37, 2012.
- Schofield TP & Denson TF. Alcohol outlet business hours and violent crime in New York state. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 48(3):363–69, 2013.
References from 2019 update
- de Goeij, M.C.M.; Veldhuizen, E.M.; Buster, M.C.A.; and Kunst, A.E. The impact of extended closing times of alcohol outlets on alcohol-related injuries in the nightlife areas of Amsterdam: A controlled before-and-after evaluation. Addiction 110(6):955–964, 2015.
- Green, C.P.; Heywood, J.S.; and Navarro, M. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents? Journal of Health Economics 35:189–198, 2014.
- Hobday, M.; Chikritzhs, T.; Liang, W.B.; and Meuleners, L. The effect of alcohol outlets, sales and trading hours on alcohol-related injuries presenting at emergency departments in Perth, Australia, from 2002 to 2010. Addiction 110(12):1901–1909, 2015.
- Kypri, K.; McElduff, P.; and Miller, P. Restrictions in pub closing times and lockouts in Newcastle, Australia five years on. Drug and Alcohol Review 33(3):323–326, 2014.
- Levine, N. The location of late night bars and alcohol-related crashes in Houston, Texas. Accident Analysis and Prevention 107:152–163, 2017.
- Marcus, J.; and Siedler, T. Reducing binge drinking? The effect of a ban on late-night off-premise alcohol sales on alcohol-related hospital stays in Germany. Journal of Public Economics 123:55–77, 2015.
- Sanchez-Ramirez, D.C.; and Voaklander, D. The impact of policies regulating alcohol trading hours and days on specific alcohol-related harms: A systematic review. Injury Prevention 24(1):94–100, 2018.
- Wilkinson, C.; Livingston, M.; and Room, R. Impacts of changes to trading hours of liquor licences on alcohol-related harm: A systematic review 2005–2015. Public Health Research & Practice 26(4):e2641644, 2016.
See related studies in References, which describe the detrimental consequences associated with extended hours of alcohol sales.