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Individual-Level Strategies
Education/awareness program

Normative re-education: Electronic/mailed personalized normative feedback (PNF)—Event-specific prevention (21st birthday cards)

Under this event-specific prevention PNF strategy, students receive a birthday card on their 21st birthday, warning them against excessive celebratory drinking.

  • Effectiveness: = Lower effectiveness
  • Cost: $ = Lower
  • Barriers: # = Lower
  • Research Amount: *** = 7 to 10 studies
  • Public Health Reach: Broad
  • Primary Modality: Online/offsite
  • Staffing Expertise Needed: Coordinator
  • Target Population: Individuals, underage, or specific groups
  • Duration of Effects: Mixed short-term (< 6 months) effects; long-term (≥ 6 months) effects not assessed

NOTE: Cost ratings are based on the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors.

An official website of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

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