Skills training, alcohol focus: Self-monitoring/self-assessment alone
Self-monitoring/self-assessment approaches involve repeated assessment (e.g., daily diary, multiple longitudinal assessment spread out over weeks, months, or years) without any other intervention.
Effectiveness: = Higher effectiveness
Cost: $ = Lower
Barriers: # = Lower
Research Amount: *** = 7 to 10 studies
Public Health Reach: Focused
Primary Modality: Online/offsite
Staffing Expertise Needed: Coordinator
Target Population: Individuals or specific groups
Duration of Effects: Short-term effects (≤ 6 months); long-term (≥ 6 months) effects
Although this approach is a component of larger, effective programs such as BASICS and ASTP, it is rated here as a stand-alone intervention.
Effectiveness ratings are based on the percentage of studies reporting any positive outcomes. Strategies with three or fewer studies did not receive an effectiveness rating due to the limited data on which to base a conclusion. Cost ratings are based on the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number of randomized controlled trials (RCT) that evaluated the strategy. Duration of effects refers to the timeframe within which the intervention demonstrated effects on alcohol-related behavioral outcomes; follow-up periods for short-term effects were <6 months; follow-up periods for long-term effects were ≥6 months.
Larimer, M.E.; and Cronce, J.M. Identification, prevention and treatment: A review of individual-focused strategies to reduce problematic alcohol consumption by college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol (Suppl. 14):148–63, 2002.
- Cronin, C. Harm reduction for alcohol-use-related problems among college students. Substance Use and Misuse 31(14):2029–37, 1996.
- Garvin, R.B.; Alcorn, J.D.; and Faulkner, K.K. Behavioral strategies for alcohol abuse prevention with high-risk college males. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education 36(1):23–34, 1990.
- Miller, E.T.; Kilmer, J.R.; Kim, E.L.; et al. Alcohol skills training for college students. In: Monti, P.M.; Colby, S.M.; and O’Leary, T.A., eds. Adolescents, Alcohol, and Substance Abuse: Reaching Teens Through Brief Interventions. New York, NY, Guilford Publications, 2001, pp. 183–215.
Larimer, M.E.; and Cronce, J.M. Identification, prevention, and treatment revisited: Individual-focused college drinking prevention strategies 1999–2006. Addictive Behaviors 32:2439–68, 2007.
- Carey, K.B.; Carey, M.P.; Maisto, S.A.; and Henson, J.M. Brief motivational interventions for heavy college drinkers: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 74(5):943?54, 2006.
Additional studies not identified in prior reviews
- McCambridge, J.; and Day, M. Randomized controlled trial of the effects of completing the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test questionnaire on self-reported hazardous drinking. Addiction 103(2):241–8, 2008.
References from 2019 update
- Wagener, T.L.; Leffingwell, T.R.; Mignogna, J.; et al. Randomized trial comparing computer-delivered and face-to-face personalized feedback interventions for high-risk drinking among college students. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 43(2):260–267, 2012.
- Walters, S.T.; Vader, A.M.; Harris, T.R.; and Jouriles, E.N. Reactivity to alcohol assessment measures: An experimental test. Addiction104(8):1305–1310, 2009.
- Witkiewitz, K.; Desai, S.A.; Bowen, S.; et al. Development and evaluation of a mobile intervention for heavy drinking and smoking among college students. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 28(3):639–650, 2014.
For information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.